STEP 5

Develop Management Approach


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After inventorying the potential sources within the delineated wellhead protection area, you are ready to address those potential risks to your water supply. The primary goal of the management phase of Oregon's Wellhead Protection Program is to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination from potential contaminant sources. It is highly improbable that you can eliminate all risks in the WHPA, but by applying one or more management tools where you determine it is appropriate, you will be able to reduce the likelihood of groundwater contamination impacting your water supply in the future.

One of the key underlying philosophies used in developing this program and guidance manual has been that one of the most effective ways to achieve resource protection will be by developing public/private partnerships. It is recognized that a stronger regulatory or "command-and-control" approach is not necessary to achieve protection of your water system. Although some of the proposed management tools in this section refer to existing regulatory programs, it is the advisory committee's and state agency's opinions that groundwater protection within the wellhead protection areas can best be accomplished by the RMAs developing partnerships with local business, industry, and the agricultural community and focusing on educational/training and pollution prevention concepts.

In Step 4 (Section 3-4), a "source" was defined as a location where there is any activity having the potential to release one or more contaminants into groundwater at a concentration of concern. Any source within your wellhead protection area can be assumed to pose a risk of contamination and possible loss of your water supply. Due to limited resources both at the state and local levels, however, it may be necessary to focus your efforts only on the sources which pose the most significant risks.

The first step in developing your management plan will be to screen out those sources which pose little to no risk to groundwater. Next you will consider the site-specific natural characteristics in your wellhead protection area in an attempt to further reduce the number of sources that need to be addressed. In this process, you will screen out any zones that have an inherently low susceptibility to contamination.

This section will also provide a resource list of general management tools that can be used for the entire wellhead protection area, then specific tools for each land use category or type of potential source(s).

Groundwater Protection Basics:

Since groundwater can be affected by a wide variety of human activities and sources, a comprehensive groundwater protection program incorporates many different components. We can generally categorize the various components of a groundwater protection program into three areas:

1. Pollution prevention/best management practices (BMPs).

2. Regulatory permitting/project review.

3. Land use controls or restrictions.

The first (and perhaps most important) general category of groundwater protection program elements includes pollution prevention or best management practices. Pollution prevention is the use of materials, processes, or practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants or wastes at the source. It includes practices that reduce the use of hazardous and nonhazardous materials, energy, water, or other resources as well as those that protect natural resources through conservation or more efficient use. The Federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 established pollution prevention as a "national objective", recognizing that there are significant opportunities for industries (in particular) to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. For example, basic pollution prevention concepts are applied in implementing the Oregon Toxics Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program, which has been in effect since 1989. As will be discussed in more detail later in this section, there are extensive resources available for local governments to use in encouraging pollution prevention concepts to be applied within wellhead protection areas.

Best management practices (BMPs) are typically actions developed for specific operations associated with agriculture and industry that serve to reduce hazardous material usage or risks of release. The term "BMP" is generally used to describe operational practices, such as good housekeeping and spill prevention, or source control practices, such as designing a storm water system that prevents contact with pesticides or hazardous materials. Encouragement of implementation of BMPs through free technical assistance or training may be one very effective tool for local governments to use in reducing the risks of groundwater contamination in wellhead protection areas.

Efforts at the local level to recognize businesses that employ environmentally sound practices and encourage consumers to support those businesses contributes significantly to the success of this program (see subsection "Pollution Prevention Recognition").

Although the wellhead protection program initiated under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was developed to be an active groundwater contamination prevention program, most of the other existing groundwater-related mandates rely upon responses to contamination events. One preventative approach that is incorporated into the existing regulatory programs, however, is permitting or project review. The regulatory permitting and project review approach is implemented through federal, state, and local laws. Technical standards are generally used to establish and ensure compliance with permitted discharges to air, soil, and water. Project reviews are conducted as part of environmental impact evaluations required by federal laws and local planning requirements. Permitting and project review can affect the siting, design, construction, operation, and closure of facilities such as buildings, above and underground storage tanks, treatment plants, landfills, and transportation corridors.

Groundwater protection accomplished through the regulatory approach involves many federal and state agencies, laws, and rules. There are six primary federal laws which are designed to help protect groundwater quality by setting standards or permitting uses and activities. The Safe Drinking Water Act set maximum contaminant levels in drinking water and established flexible protection programs. The Clean Water Act (CWA) sets standards for allowable pollutant discharges to surface water or groundwater. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates transport, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or Superfund) regulates cleanup of contamination from hazardous wastes. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) regulates pesticide use. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulates manufactured chemicals. The federal responsibility for implementing these groundwater-related laws rests primarily with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

At the state level, Oregon has a network of laws and rules which are related to protection of groundwater quality. Four state agencies in Oregon administer the majority of the groundwater-related statutes and rules - the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the Oregon Health Division (OHD), the Water Resources Division (WRD), and the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA). DEQ has the responsibility of implementing Oregon's 1989 Groundwater Protection Act, which focuses on statewide prevention of groundwater contamination, conservation of the resource, and maintaining its quality for present and future beneficial uses. The Act specifically calls for DEQ to implement a wellhead protection program. DEQ also administers regulations for the permitting, treatment, handling, and disposal of wastewaters, hazardous wastes and solid wastes. In addition, DEQ regulates underground storage tanks and injection wells.

OHD administers statutes and rules regulating the sources and quality of drinking water supplies as required by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. OHD also conducts special studies in contaminated groundwater areas and provides public information associated with the health effects of various contaminants in the drinking water. WRD administers the statutes and rules governing well construction, usage, abandonment, and groundwater appropriation.

WRD also conducts extensive water supply, water quality, or water use investigations, issues permits, and takes administrative actions to prevent groundwater problems.

The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA), under recent statutes, now has the authority to develop and carry out Agricultural Water Quality Management Area Plans for agricultural and rural lands where any type of water quality management plan is required by state or federal law. Agricultural Water Quality Management Plans outline comprehensive measures that will be taken to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on agricultural and rural lands located in a management area. ODA determines which areas require such a plan and establishes management area boundaries. ODA has the exclusive authority to regulate agricultural operations for prevention and control of water pollution. In some cases, wellhead protection areas may qualify as an area where such a plan will need to be developed. ODA also has the exclusive authority to regulate all activities related to the use and sale of pesticides in Oregon.

A summary of both federal and state environmental mandates relating to groundwater is included as Appendix D of this Guidance Manual. These regulations provide the basis of our existing groundwater protection efforts.

One of the tools available to local government in managing potential sources within the wellhead protection area is the review and/or inspection of regulated (locally-permitted) facilities for adequacy and compliance with permit requirements. This is an example of how existing regulations may be used to implement or improve a groundwater contamination prevention program. Another tool may be to restrict or prohibit specified products or activities within certain zones of the wellhead protection area. This can best be accomplished through the permit review process or special permit requirement. Permitting or project review can be a very effective tool for local governments to use in any kind of groundwater protection program. To the maximum extent possible, local governments should consider using existing statutes and regulations to implement wellhead protection in Oregon.

NOTE: It is not DEQ's intention to change any permit requirements or standards within wellhead protection areas in Oregon. Any local jurisdiction, though, can use permit reviews or modifications in standards to achieve their goal of protecting groundwater by establishing an ordinance.

With some exceptions, land use controls or restrictions can be effective only to the extent that areas have not been developed. Nevertheless, for undeveloped areas, land use controls can be extremely effective in reducing the risk of groundwater contamination by restricting high-risk activities or limiting development densities in sensitive areas. Various examples of land use controls include comprehensive planning, land acquisition, and zoning overlays. Land use controls have been successfully used in Oregon as part of the statewide planning goals on conservation of farm lands, forest lands, natural resources, coastal resources, and policies on development.

Oregon's land use goals are implemented and enforced through local comprehensive planning. State law requires each city and county to have a comprehensive plan and implement zoning and land-development ordinances needed to put the plan into effect. Local governments do the planning, and the State of Oregon, through the Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD), reviews the proposed plans for consistency with the statewide planning goals and "acknowledges" or approves the plan. Local governments then administer the land-use regulations specified in their plan, including permitting, variances, and conditional uses.

As part of Oregon's Statewide Planning Program, when a wellhead protection area is delineated (and certified by OHD), it becomes a "Goal 5 Resource". DLCD has determined that Oregon's Wellhead Protection Program is an acceptable and recommended method of addressing those groundwater resources. DLCD is currently (as of May 1996) proposing revisions to OAR 660-23 that will specify that Goal 5 applies to those public water systems that have a service population greater than 10,000 or more than 3,000 service connections that choose to delineate, and then gain OHD's certification of the delineation. Goal 5 will also apply to those WHPAs which are delineated, certified, and are declared locally significant by the local government. A local government may declare locally significant wellhead protection areas only within its own jurisdiction. The wellhead protection program will be relied upon to address these groundwater resources. A DEQ-certified Wellhead Protection Plan will automatically serve to address any DLCD Goal 5 requirements.

For those communities that are developing a Wellhead Protection Plan to address the Goal 5 requirements, the following three topics need to be written as policy and included in your local government's comprehensive land use plan.

1. The factual base and/or background information relied upon in the development of the local wellhead protection plan;

2. A general statement of need, "...to protect public health and safety by minimizing contamination of the low/surficial aquifers...," and of the enabling authorities; and

3. Clear statement(s) of intent. The local government should clearly state the various choices that were made at each stage of the process of developing the local Wellhead Protection Plan. The specific type of local program that is chosen by the local government should also be stated in the policy. Such statements need to also specify any future courses of action. These statements include, but are not limited to:

For further information, refer to statewide Planning Goal 1, Citizen Involvement, Goal 2, Part 1, Planning, and local government's enabling authorities under ORS Chapter 97 (for cities), and ORS Chapter 215 (for counties) or by contacting Doug White or Diana Butts, DLCD in Salem (503-373-0083).

Methodology:

The methodology for accomplishing Step 5, development of the management approach, can be summarized as follows:

A. Screen out any zones within the wellhead protection area that have a low susceptibility to contamination by:

B. Screen out those potential sources that pose low risks to the groundwater by:

C. Evaluate and consider choosing appropriate general management tools for all potential sources within the wellhead protection area;

D. Consider choosing appropriate management tools specific to a category or type of source within the wellhead protection area, such as:

A detailed description of each step is included below. It is not necessary to do any screening if you do not want to reduce the number of potential sources or the area to be addressed through this management plan. For example, screening may not be necessary for wellhead protection areas that include only one or two types of land uses. The screening for agricultural and rural lands will occur after their "on-farm assessment" (see Agricultural/Rural Management Options below). Skip the screening steps (A and B below) if you want to proceed to the selection of management options.

A. Screen out any zones that have a low susceptibility to contamination.

As has been discussed previously, any source within your wellhead protection area can be assumed to pose a risk of contamination. The degree of that risk not only depends on the types of and operating practices of sources, but also on the susceptibility of the groundwater to contamination in any given area. An example of a very high susceptibility in an aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer overlain by coarse sands and gravels.

The easiest way to screen out any zones that may have a low susceptibility to groundwater contamination is to use a pre-developed procedure to determine the susceptibility. The Oregon Health Division (OHD) prepared a manual entitled "Guidance Manual for Monitoring Reduction Through A Use and Susceptibility Waiver", October 1992. The purpose of the document is to provide Oregon public water systems with the procedures for conducting a vulnerability assessment with respect to the synthetic organic chemical monitoring requirements as specified in the Phase II/V rule per 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The document has been revised (January 1996) and provides details of the required procedures for completing a use or susceptibility determination. This document can be obtained by calling OHD's Drinking Water Section at 503-731-4010.

If a susceptibility assessment is performed, a public water system may be able to not only substantially reduce the size of the wellhead protection area needing management, but also acquire a waiver from monitoring requirements for Phase II/V contaminants.

There are also other acceptable ways to screen out zones within the wellhead protection area based on aquifer susceptibility. A good discussion of the important factors involved in such an assessment can be found in "DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Groundwater Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings" by Aller et al., April 1987. This document can be obtained by calling 800-553-6847 and asking for information on Document No. PB87-213-914. DRASTIC is an example of a methodology which could be applied in a wellhead protection area to screen out low-susceptibility areas. DRASTIC was developed to evaluate the pollution potential of hydrogeological settings in the United States. It uses seven factors that combine with weights and ratings to produce a numerical value for ranking. The numerical value is then used to prioritize areas as to their groundwater contamination susceptibility.

B. Screen out potential sources with low risks:

Of the potential sources listed on your completed inventory form, only the moderate and higher risk sources need to be addressed in the management plan. Notification shall be provided to the owner/operators of low-risk potential sources that they are located within the wellhead protection area, and the Notification should include any specific concerns.

Local and state resources can then be directed to more serious potential problems in the wellhead protection areas, instead of addressing all risks.

There are many potential sources associated with Oregon business, industry, and agriculture where best management practices (BMPs) are already being used. In this context, we use the term "BMPs" to represent any waste reduction or prevention activity. Much of this has been accomplished because of individual property owners voluntarily seeking to incorporate these changes into their operations. Incorporating BMPs into an operation is generally accomplished through process or design changes, operational changes such as preventative maintenance, and employee training. The objectives (and subsequent benefits) of incorporating BMPs into the "way of doing business" can be summarized by the following:

1. Improved efficiency and organization,

2. Cost savings by reducing product usage or disposal amounts, and

3. Reduced liabilities associated with spills or releases to the environment.

Because of these benefits, many Oregon businesses, industries, and agricultural land owners have voluntarily incorporated BMPs into their operations.

BMP implementation in Oregon has also occurred as a result of the Toxic Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction (TURHWR) law requirements, technical assistance offered by DEQ's Toxics Use Reduction staff, DEQ's Pollution Prevention Program, and agricultural-related non-point-source programs, such as those coordinated by Oregon Department of Agriculture and the OSU Extension Service. The TURHWR law requires all businesses which use toxic materials to develop formal plans for reducing or eliminating the use of toxic substances and the generation of hazardous wastes. More information about this program can be obtained from DEQ by calling 503-229-5913 or 1-800-452-4011 and obtaining a TURHWR "Planning Guide" (DEQ, 1993). More information about the TUR technical assistance, the DEQ Pollution Prevention Program, and agricultural BMPs will be provided in the Commercial/Industrial and Agricultural/Rural subsections below.

Any potential sources where BMPs for groundwater protection have been incorporated will not generally need any additional management attention. Your Team will need to check with the individual business owners and agricultural operators to determine if they are using established BMPs.

There are also Oregon businesses and agricultural operators that have never used, or have eliminated the use of, any potential contaminants in their operations. Your local Team will need to reliably document that there is no potential for groundwater contamination from facilities which do not use the potential contaminating substances; use Table 1-1 (Section 1.1) as a guideline. Since all facilities are required to have Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) records, a review of the MSDS records will indicate whether a facility uses any of these chemicals. These sources can be screened out as well, with no follow-up management effort needed in this program.

One additional way individual sources can be screened out is by verifying that there are adequate monitoring or detection measures in place to identify any groundwater contamination originating from a facility within the wellhead protection area. An example of this situation is where as a condition for an existing permit, a facility was required to install a network of monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient from their site, such as a solid waste landfill or an ongoing cleanup process at a facility. Recognize that monitoring wells are not a substitute for employing best management practices for any potential source. DEQ can assist in determining whether the monitoring program is considered adequate. If your Team verifies the active and adequate monitoring of the groundwater immediately downgradient of any potential source, you can screen out these sources as they most likely need no further management attention at the present time.

C. Evaluate and consider choosing appropriate general management tools for all potential sources within the wellhead protection area.

After screening out any low-risk potential sources and low-susceptibility zones within your wellhead protection area, your Team is ready to consider and select the management options for the various sources and land uses. We will begin with general management options that may be used for the entire area to be protected.

Examples of General Management Options

Brief descriptions of each can be found in Table 3-4, along with phone numbers and references for more information.

Table 3-4: General Management Tools Available for the Wellhead Protection Area

"Oregon Wellhead Protection's TOP DOZEN List"

1. Public Education/Notification:

It is highly recommended that every Team consider implementing this option within the wellhead protection area. Every effort should be made to contact all property owners within the wellhead protection area so they are aware of the need for protection measures. Consider coordinating one or more "Community Groundwater Protection Workshops" where information is available and presentations are made to inform local residents of the connection between drinking water quality and activities on the land surface. DEQ and OHD can provide technical assistance or presentations at any workshop you wish to host. You may want to work with your local newspaper to reach others in a public education effort with public service ads, maps, and data. The DEQ Wellhead Protection Program (503-229-5279) can provide literature for distribution, as well as some excellent examples of ads and brochures.

FOCUS for educational effort:

Basic information about groundwater and the relationship between surface activities and groundwater quality.

Familiarity with the location of the protected area.

Basic information on sources of contamination.

Effective strategies for safe management of all potentail contaminants.

2. Sign Installation:
Information signs should be placed adjacent to all roadways entering the wellhead protection area. The signs should include the name of the water system or jurisdiction along with a phone number where callers can obtain more information. Example sign:

Be Careful With Our Drinking Water!

You are entering

Anytown Groundwater Protection Area

Call XXX-XXXX

for more information.

(Call 911 to report any spills.)

3. Water Conservation Program:
Implementing water conservation measures in your community can significantly benefit wellhead protection efforts by reducing the pumping rates. Lower pumping rates mean reduced flow rates and less risk of moving any contamination. Conserving water may also help reduce the need for additional water sources in the near future. Water conservation can be accomplished through steps such as distribution of flow control devices, retrofitting high-flow toilets and washing machines, and recycling wastewater. Information on developing a water conservation program can be obtained from the Municipal Water Conservation Specialists at the Oregon Water Resources Department, 503-378-8455, Ext. 283.
4. Public/Private Partnerships:
It is highly recommended that the RMA (or public jurisdictions) seek partnerships with the private business, commercial, and industrial communities within the wellhead protection area. These public/private partnerships can involve setting up a process for collaboration and finding common goals, such as maintaining low cost clean drinking water, encouraging best management practice applications, and continued economic prosperity in the region. Mutual benefits may include maximizing pollution prevention implementation in the community, public recognition of "green businesses", etc.
5. Hazardous Waste Collection:
Establishing a permanent location or holding one-day events to collect hazardous wastes from community residents (both small businesses and households) is a very effective way to reduce risks posed by storing hazardous wastes within the wellhead protection area. This would be a very important element of a local plan addressing any areas with septic tanks as it would potentially reduce the amount of household hazardous wastes dumped into the drains and toilets. More information can be obtained from DEQ's Waste Management and Cleanup Division at 503-229-5913; ask for assistance with household hazardous waste collection. (More information on Household Hazardous Waste will be provided in the Residential/Municipal management section below as well.)
6. Spill Response Plans:
In addition to addressing spill response procedures as part of the contingency plan (Step 6 - Section 3-6), jurisdictions within wellhead protection areas could develop specific spill response procedures to allow quicker response and notifications should a hazardous material spill or release occur within the wellhead protection area. These can be integrated into your county's Emergency Management Plan. Emergency Management Plans are required for Oregon counties, but are optional for cities. The Oregon Emergency Management (OEM) staff can help with the development of spill response plans, can help you locate your county's coordinator, and let you know if your county has an existing approved emergency plan. OEM can be reached at 503-378-2911 in Salem.
7. Zoning/Health Ordinances:
There are many different types of zoning tools. Your community can identify the wellhead protection area with an overlay map, then potentially use a special permitting requirement to monitor new building applicants and some chemical uses. Alternatively, your Team may want to develop a public health ordinance that minimizes the risk of contaminating the public water supply. Appendix E of this document contains a sample ordinance from a small community using an overlay approach to create a wellhead protection district. EPA also compiled an extensive set of sample ordinances from communities across the country. Information about the "Wellhead Protection Compendium of Ordinances" can be obtained by contacting DLCD at 503-373-0050 in Salem.
8. Groundwater Monitoring Program:
Collecting data from existing monitoring/supply wells or from newly installed wells can help your community detect any contaminants that may threaten the water supply in the near future. This is especially useful downgradient of the higher-risk sources in the wellhead protection area. Use the resources listed in Appendix B of this document to help you locate any wells and active groundwater cleanup sites in the area. You will need to contact DEQ (503-229-5913) and WRD (503-378-8455) for this information.
9. Property Purchase/Donation Program:
Community ownership of as much as possible of the land within the wellhead protection area obviously provides some of the best assurances of long-term protection of the public water supply. Protection could be provided by ownership accomplished through methods such as capital or bond fund programs, or through easements and deed restrictions. Acquisitions of land could also be coordinated through private non-profit land conservation organizations in Oregon such as River Network (503-241-3506), Nature Conservancy (503-228-9561), Trust for Public Land (503-228-6620) or local land trusts in your area. These organizations can assist you in acquiring land within your wellhead protection area by conveyance to a trust, seeking donations, or direct land purchases for conservation.
10. Septic System Upgrades/Maintenance Program:
Septic systems are discussed in more detail in the Residential/Municipal subsection below. Septic systems are very common sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater. Many areas of Oregon already have nitrate contamination problems. If your wellhead protection area contains high-density areas (>1 septic system/acre) of septic, you may want to initiate an effort to upgrade these, or at least implement a voluntary or mandatory program for maintenance. For example, septic systems should be pumped out every 2-3 years for proper functioning. We would also highly recommend that you consider implementing a septic tank cleaner ban or prohibition within your wellhead protection area. Most septic system cleaners contain solvents which are extremely threatening to your groundwater quality. Any ban on these substances would need to have an educational component associated with it since it will likely be very difficult to enforce, so you'll need to count on voluntary compliance. Information on septic systems and maintenance can be obtained by calling DEQ's Water Quality Division at 503-229-5279.
11. Special Chemical Use/Transport Prohibition:
Another general tool for your consideration may be a prohibition of the use or transport of high risk chemical compounds which produce severe groundwater contamination if released into the environment. Compounds called dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are generally considered to cause irreversible groundwater contamination when they are released into groundwater. Examples of DNAPLS commonly used in Oregon include solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichlorethane (TCA), vinyl chloride, chlorobenzene, and wood-preservatives such as pentachlorophenol (PCP). These compounds have already been detected in over 80 public water systems in Oregon. Control and/or treatment is typically very expensive for local jurisdictions to address. Your Team may want to consider a threshold amount for the prohibition (such as one gallon) or limiting the implementation of the prohibition to a certain distance from your supply well(s) (such as 2,000'). The DEQ Wellhead Protection Program staff (503-229-5279) can work with any local jurisdiction to assist in developing a site- specific chemical use prohibition plan. NOTE: Any potential restrictions related to pesticides on properties not owned by the jurisdiction must be administered by the Oregon Department of Agriculture (503-378-3810).
12. Potential Source Restrictions:
Local communites may also want to consider establishing and implementing restrictions on the placement of some high-risk potential contaminant sources such as underground storage tanks, dry wells, sumps, injection wells, lagoons, and/or landfills within the wellhead protection area.

GW\WH5868BC

One or more of these management tools can also be applied within certain distances from your well or wellfield. For example, you can create 6-month, 1-year, and 5-year time-of-travel (TOT) zones within the wellhead protection area and choose to apply different management strategies within each zone. A fairly common use of this approach includes a prohibition of hazardous wastes stored within a 6-month or 1-year TOT in the wellhead protection area.

D. Consider choosing appropriate management tools specific to the category or type of source within the wellhead protection area.

In Step 4 (Section 3-4), we recommended that you divide your wellhead protection area into the following four land use categories:

1.  Commercial/Industrial;

2.  Agricultural/Rural;

3.  Residential/Municipal;

4.  Miscellaneous.

If your wellhead protection area is divided into these categories, it will make your Team's management strategy easier to develop since there are tools which can be applied most appropriately by land use category. These will be discussed in this section. Each category will have a summary of the most common sources and contaminants, management tools, and resources for assistance.

One of the most important functions of your local wellhead protection Team is to ensure that the concerns of different segments of the community are addressed as you develop the management portion of the wellhead protection plan. DEQ recommends that the representative(s) from each of the commercial, agriculture, and residential, etc. segments review the options presented here and select the best tools for your particular community to use in protecting groundwater. It is important that each representative obtain public input and feedback as they select the option(s). In many cases, it may be beneficial to seek outside assistance in addressing specific issues in your community. For example, the agricultural representative may want to consult with the local Extension Service and others to help them obtain the best information on any improvements in practices that apply to their site-specific conditions. Many types of industries or commercial establishments also have state or local associations which have already developed pollution prevention tools that apply specifically to that business, such as the dry cleaning industry. Efforts should be made to identify as many of these resources as possible.


Commercial/Industrial Management Options


The commercial and industrial facilities in your wellhead protection area are generally the most highly regulated of any land uses. However, even facilities that are required to have permits for building, material, storage, or waste discharge cannot be assumed to pose no risks to groundwater. The majority of other regulations applicable to commercial and industrial facilities rely upon responses to contamination events, rather than on preventing problems. In your management efforts working with the commercial and industrial facilities, the focus will primarily be on PREVENTION of groundwater contamination.

There are many ways to achieve your goal of raising awareness of the need for protection, and facilitating any potential changes in the day-to-day operations at the existing businesses in order to reduce the risks of groundwater contamination.

Given adequate background information, free technical assistance, and community support, most businesses will voluntarily participate in groundwater protection efforts. We have not attempted to offer tools specific to individual types of businesses, although these are available through DEQ's existing programs. This section will highlight those existing programs related to commercial/industrial activities and groundwater protection, specifically DEQ's pollution prevention and waste reduction programs, as well as provide some handouts for potential use in your wellhead protection efforts.

Led by the commercial/industrial representative(s), your local Team can choose one or more of the following options for management of commercial and industrial facilities:

For all types of commercial/industrial sources:

1. Encourage participation in pollution prevention and waste reduction activities offered through Oregon DEQ.

To facilitate implementation of wellhead protection in your community, your Team should consider utilizing the existing resources and programs which can reduce the risks of groundwater contamination. Oregon DEQ has several established programs that can be extremely useful in your management efforts for commercial and industrial facilities located within the wellhead protection area. A significant amount of groundwater protection is already (directly and indirectly) accomplished in Oregon businesses through DEQ's Pollution Prevention Program and the implementation of the Toxics Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction (TURHWR) law requirements, with technical assistance offered by DEQ's Toxics Use Reduction staff.

Pollution prevention is the use of materials, processes, or practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants or wastes at the source. It includes practices that reduce the use of hazardous and nonhazardous materials, energy, water, or other resources as well as those that protect natural resources through conservation or more efficient use. The Federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 established pollution prevention as a "national objective", recognizing that there are significant opportunities for businesses to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. Appendix F of this document contains an introduction to pollution prevention concepts, as well as a list of resources available to businesses or your Team in identifying specific pollution prevention applications for individual facilities.

Oregon DEQ recently commissioned a study of how to enhance pollution prevention and technical assistance initiatives by the agency (Ross & Assoc., 1994). The report provides a good summary of the existing efforts by DEQ to promote pollution prevention. The primary program areas in which these initiatives have been implemented include: toxics use and hazardous waste generation; enforcement; air quality; water quality; and solid waste. Additional information on any of the following pollution prevention applications at DEQ can be found in the Ross & Associates (1994) report or by calling DEQ's Waste Management and Cleanup Division at (503) 229-5913.

Pollution Prevention Planning Requirements: The Toxics Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction (TURHWR) law of 1989 requires all businesses which use toxic materials to develop formal plans for reducing or eliminating the use of toxic substances and the generation of hazardous wastes. As of 1994, DEQ has a compliance rate of 83 percent (of 2250 facilities) self-certifying that the plan or progress report has been completed. More information about this program can be obtained from the TURHWR "Planning Guide" (DEQ, 1993). Through the planning process, facilities may discover opportunities to pursue pollution prevention or realize the benefits of pollution prevention of which they previously were unaware. This knowledge increases the likelihood that prevention will occur. DEQ also requires pollution prevention planning under the Oil Spill Prevention Plan focused on cargo ships, oil tankers, and oil storage facilities.

Technical Assistance: Technical assistance, when incorporating information on pollution prevention techniques, philosophy, or technologies, can lead to a wider awareness and adoption of pollution prevention techniques. Technical assistance provided by the Toxic Use Reduction (TUR) staff at DEQ primarily promotes pollution prevention by directly recommending lesser polluting practices. This is a free service provided by the agency. More information on this program can be obtained by calling DEQ's Waste Management and Cleanup Division at (503) 229-5913. The Construction Industry Multimedia Pilot Project is also oriented around utilizing technical assistance to address a potential environmental problem. The construction industry project has combined information on the industry's regulatory obligations across all media programs with information on pollution prevention alternatives to simplify compliance and promote prevention (see the Environmental Handbook for Oregon Construction Contractors, 1994). Technical assistance is also provided through outreach from the Groundwater and Surface Water Nonpoint Source Programs and this Wellhead Protection Program.

Financial Incentives: A variety of mechanisms exist to reduce financial expenditures associated with pollution prevention. These include low interest loans, tax credits, and direct subsidies. DEQ utilizes a variety of financial incentives to promote UST upgrades and maintenance (including tax credits, grant, and loan guarantees). Information on the UST program can be obtained by calling DEQ's UST Helpline at (800) 742-7878. Additionally, the Environmental Crimes Act provides an indirect financial incentive by lowering the potential fines and/or liability related to improper practices discovered during a self-imposed environmental audit. Enforcement efforts across all DEQ media programs have recently become subject to a new Oregon environmental crimes statute that allows firms to declare information collected during self-imposed environmental audits "privileged", and thus off-limits in enforcement. This Act helps remove a major disincentive to firms evaluating their practices for potential improvements, including, but not limited to, pollution prevention. More information on this issue can be obtained by calling the DEQ enforcement group at (503) 229-5528.

Pollution Liability: The existing liability for cleaning up any hazardous wastes released or spilled into the environment creates incentives for minimizing risks of groundwater contamination. Measurable reduction in a facility's risks can be achieved through pollution prevention. Any unit of reduction in toxics used or wastes generated is a unit not creating potential liability. Sources which may have spills or releases in the future have been awakened to the need to reduce liability by DEQ and EPA mandating cleanups through federal and state cleanup requirements. Local communities are encouraged to become familiar with DEQ's records and cleanup activities in their area. More information on Oregon's cleanup program can be obtained by calling DEQ's Waste Management Division at (503) 229-5913 or (800) 452-4011.

Disclosure of Release Data: Making pollutant release data available to the public has generated awareness and concern and hence increased the willingness of Oregon businesses to incorporate pollution prevention. DEQ has not implemented initiatives utilizing release data to leverage public concern around specific pollution sources, though the state as a whole has through the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) process administered by the State Fire Marshal. Information on the TRI process can be obtained by calling the Fire Marshal's office in Salem at (503) 378-3473, Ext. 233.

Fees/Taxes: Fees and taxes can be tied to amounts of pollutant releases, or toxic/hazardous inputs to operating processes. Tying fees and taxes to the amount of pollution created provides a continuous incentive for further reductions in pollution levels. DEQ's Hazardous Waste Generation and Management Fee serves as both a disincentive to waste generation and as an incentive to manage waste in an environmentally preferable manner.

Pollution Prevention Recognition: Officially recognizing environmentally friendly behavior can make pollution prevention a more attractive choice to facilities, as well as help environmentally concerned consumers influence manufacturer's practices. These goals can be accomplished through awards programs, certification programs, green market efforts, labeling requirements, etc. DEQ uses a state-wide recognition in its annual Toxics Use Reduction award event, recognizing significant achievement in the reduction of toxic materials used in operating processes and practices.

Bans: Banning a substance or polluting practice is the "ultimate pollution prevention signal", and is an extreme approach to solving environmental problems. Due to their overreaching impact and rigidity, bans are usually reserved for extremely dangerous or detrimental practices, or for hazardous/toxic substances or practices for which substitutes are readily available. DEQ's use of bans includes the Statewide Phosphate Detergent Ban designed to improve water quality.

2. Distribute information on general best management practices that are applicable to the majority of your potential commercial/industrial sources on ways to achieve groundwater protection.

Best management practices are typically actions developed for specific operations associated with agriculture and industry that serve to reduce hazardous material usage or risks of release. Incorporating best management practices into an operation is generally accomplished through process or design changes, operational changes such as preventative maintenance, and employee training. The objectives (and subsequent benefits) of incorporating best management practices into the "way of doing business" can be summarized by the following:

There are many best management practices that are applicable to a wide range of types of commercial and industrial operations since the majority of commercial and industrial operations utilize storage facilities, drains, or dry wells, etc. Table 3-5 summarizes some of these best management practices.

3. Send out individual letters with informative attachments about resources available to identify best management practices for specific facilities.

Appendix G of this manual is a sample letter to a property owner or operator within the wellhead protection area. The purpose of the letter is to tell them that they are located in the wellhead protection area and ask that they take voluntary actions to protect groundwater in this area. Attached to the letter is some general information about the Waste Reduction Assistance Program at Oregon DEQ and a list of free resources.

4. Host informative meetings with the leaders of the local business community to raise awareness of the need for groundwater protection.

Oregon DEQ would be glad to work directly with local businesses, the Association of Oregon Industries, or any other organization in developing materials and a presentation for your local business community. This can be coordinated through the Wellhead Protection Program by calling (503) 229-5279.

5. Establish a recognition program for businesses that take voluntary actions to protect groundwater.

6. Facilitate employee training workshops to raise awareness of groundwater and potential impacts from mismanagement of hazardous wastes.

7. Any other approach that the local Team agrees will achieve your goals.


Commercial/Industrial Resource List


Center for Economics Research - Research Triangle Institute, Pollution Prevention Resource Guide for Supporting CAA Regulatory Development - Final Report, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States Environmental Protection Agency, September 1993.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Benefiting from Toxic Substance and Hazardous Waste Reduction: A Planning Guide for Oregon Businesses, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Reduction Assistance Program, March 1993.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Information Clearinghouse, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Reduction Assistance Program, May 1994.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Oregon's Toxics Use Reduction & Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Reduction Assistance Program, June 1994.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Technical Assistance is Available, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Reduction Assistance Program, September 1994.

River City Resource Group, Inc., Environmental Handbook for Oregon Construction Contractors: Best Pollution Prevention Practices, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, May 1994.

River City Resource Group, Inc., Environmental Handbook for Oregon Construction Contractors: Regulatory Guidance, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, May 1994.

Ross and Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and GEI Consultants, Inc., Enhancing Technical Assistance and Pollution Prevention Initiatives at the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Final Report, Seattle, WA, Ross and Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., April 1994.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Best Management Practices for Protecting Ground Water, Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Water, January, 1992.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Don't Wait Until 1998: Spill, Overfill, and Corrosion Protection for Underground Storage Tanks - EPA 510-B-94-002, Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency, April 1994.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Facility Pollution Prevention Guide, Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Research and Development, May 1992.

Wang, Mitchell K., "Model" Toxics Use & Hazardous Waste Reduction Plan - For Oregon Automotive Dealers, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality- Waste Reduction Assistance Program, 1992.

Washington State Department of Ecology, Storm Water Pollution Prevention Planning for Industrial Facilities: Guidance for Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices, Water Quality Report WQ-R-93-015, Olympia, WA, Washington State Department of Ecology, September 1993.

Job, Charles A. 1995. Business Benefits of Wellhead Protection, EPA 813-B-95-004, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1995. Benefits and Costs of Prevention: Case Studies of Community Wellhead Protection. Volume 1. EPA 813-B-95-005.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1995. Protecting Our Ground Water. Poster. EPA 813-F-95-002

Witten, J.; Horsley, S.; Jeer, S., Flanagan, E. A Guide to Wellhead Protection. 1995 American Planning Association Report Number 457/458. Chicago, IL 60602-6107.

Hermanson, R.E., Canessa, P. A Ready Reference for Irrigation Manual of Practice. 1995 WSU Cooperative Extension Publication EB1810.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1995. Pollution Prevention: A Resource Guide for the Northwest. Brochure. EPA 910/8-95-003.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Managing Chemicals Safely. Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office. EPA 510-K-92-001

Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center. Pollution Prevention Northwest. Quarterly newsletter. Seattle, WA Case studies, grand announcements, innovations in process design and environmental regulation.

EPA Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) - The PPIC is dedicated to reducing or eliminating pollutants through technology transfer, education, and public awareness. It is operated by EPA's OPPTS. The Clearinghouse is a free, non-regulatory service that consists of a telphone reference and referral service, a distirubiton center for selected EPA documents, and a special collection available for inter-library loan. Contact: Labat-Anderson Incorporated under contract for EPA 202-260-1023

EPA's Environmental Network for Managerial Accounting and Capital Budgeting - For a copy of this directory, which includes more than 600 participants, contact: EPA Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) at 202-260-1023.

Introduction to Environmental Accounting: Key Concepts and Terms - Discusses the major concepts underlying environmental accounting and how people are using the terms associated with it. For a copy of this 40-page primer, contact: PPIC at 202-260-1023.

A Primer for Financial Analysis of Pollution Prevention Project, by the American Institute for Pollution Prevention - Published by EPA. For a copy, contact: PPIC at 202-260-1023.

A Workbook for Total Cost Assessment, by Mitch Kennedy - This is a practical guide to calculating the real costs of pollution prevention projects. For a copy, contact: the author at 202-236-4808. The cost is $10.

Green Ledgers: Case Studies in Corporate Environmental Accounting - Edited by Daryl Ditz, Janet Ranganathan and R. Darryl Banks of the Work Resources Institute. To order: call 800-822-0504. The cost is $19.95, plus $3.50 shipping and handling.

Environmental Cost Accounting: Key Definitions and Terms - A 10-page paper available through the Business Roundtable, 1615 L. Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-5610.

An ABC Manager's Primer: Straight Talk on Activity-Based Costing, by Gary Cokins, Alan Stratton and Jack Helbling - To order, contact: the Institute of Management Accountants at 800-638-4427. The cost is $15.


Agricultural/Rural Management Options


If your Wellhead Protection Area includes a significant portion of agricultural lands, you may want to consider assembling an "Agricultural Management Group" (Ag Group) as a subcommittee to your Team. This Ag Group would assist the Team in determining how best to address any agricultural or rural lands within the Wellhead Protection Area. The Ag Group might include representatives from the local agricultural community (farmers/landowners), local Extension Service office, the closest Experiment Station, the local Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, formerly SCS), the local Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), the local Farm Services Agency (FSA), agriculture services industry, and a representative from the Department of Agriculture.

The Ag Group could provide objective technical information on agricultural issues to the agricultural landowners within the wellhead protection area and the rest of the Team. The Ag Group should be able to provide access to the most current technical information for groundwater protection which is appropriate for the local agricultural practices and conditions, and meets the needs of the local agricultural community. The OSU Extension Service can be used to facilitate education and any agriculture "management" implementation.

The overall management objectives that agricultural lands within wellhead protection area would be expected to meet are:

Ensuring that these objectives are met on agricultural lands within wellhead protection areas would ensure that management of agricultural sources would be consistent with the goal of the Wellhead Protection Plan.

The approach to develop the management plan for addressing agricultural lands and activities within wellhead protection areas includes two main steps:

During the inventory of the wellhead protection area, there will not be any effort to assess specific activities or practices on each farm. Only the most obvious and visible activities will be listed during the inventory for agricultural lands.

Moving from the inventory step to the management step requires that a more detailed assessment of the site-specific sources and practices be performed on agricultural lands. This step will lead to the identification of the most significant sources needing to be addressed and the appropriate management measures with which to address them. The resulting management measures then become the basis of the management plan for agricultural lands within wellhead protection areas.

The Ag Group would be expected to see that the on-farm assessment of agricultural practices is carried out and that a management plan is developed in response to that assessment. They should work with the agricultural landowners in the wellhead protection area and consult with the Team to accomplish these tasks.

The methodology for developing the management approach for agricultural lands is summarized as follows:

1. The Ag Group will assess the specific type of agricultural activities and practices occurring on the agricultural lands within the wellhead protection area by:

2. The Ag Group can screen out those potential sources that pose low risks to the groundwater by:

3. The Ag Group can identify and choose appropriate management tools specific to the category or type of agriculture, such as:

To assist with the on-farm assessment, Table 3-6 is provided as a guideline of significant potential sources specific to agricultural and rural lands. It lists common agricultural activities and sources they may be a potential source of contamination to ground water. For each source/activity, the information provided includes why it may be of concern to groundwater quality and the factors that would help determine whether or not it could be an actual threat.
Low risk sources are either those sources that are already being addressed by appropriate control measures or BMPs or where it was determined that the contaminants or activities did not occur within the wellhead protection area. In either situation, the Ag Group will need to reliably document that there is little potential for groundwater contamination from these sources.

Once an assessment of the activities has been made and low-risk sources have been screened out, the Ag Group will next determine the appropriate management practices and measures for medium and high risk sources. Table 3-7 is provided to assist in accomplishing this task. The table lists, by activity or source, management practices and measures that would reduce the risk that the source or practice poses to groundwater contamination.

There are many sources of information available to assist the agricultural community in protecting groundwater. Table 3-8 provides a summary of the principles, strategies, and example BMPs that can be used to protect groundwater. More information on these BMPs is available by obtaining the source publication (National Association of Wheat Growers 202-547-7800).

It should be understood that BMPs, though widely agreed upon and researched, are only suggestions of how agricultural practices might be improved to provide profitability and protect the environment. They are also only as good as the latest research that has been done and may be modified somewhat in subsequent years as new knowledge is gained. Therefore, published BMPs should not be viewed as the only practical solution in every situation.

The Ag Group or agricultural representative of the Team should be flexible in their approach and only base recommendations to farmers on a combination of scientifically sound (and current) information and practical judgment. The Ag Group should serve as a resource to the farmer in helping to locate the latest technical information on BMPs for wellhead protection, and any other technical or financial assistance which might be

available. In addition, should the assessment turn up practices/activities that are causing groundwater contamination problems for which there is no known BMPs available, the Ag Group might recommend in the management plan that resources are needed to develop BMPs to address the site-specific problem.

The site-specific application of BMPs should reflect the consensus of the landowner, the agriculture member(s) of the Team, and the Ag Group. They should choose the specific BMPs which will work best under local conditions.

Once all of the appropriate management measures have been identified for agricultural/rural lands within the wellhead protection area, the Ag Group will need to document them in a brief report, along with a strategy for implementation. This document will then be submitted to the Team for inclusion in the Wellhead Protection Plan.

Whether an Ag Group or your local Team determines the management recommendations for the agricultural lands within the wellhead protection area, implementation will best be accomplished through voluntary efforts to reduce the risks of groundwater contamination. Any management alternative that seeks to directly regulate farming practices must be developed and implemented by the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ORS 690, Section 62).

Agricultural Resources - The following description of various efforts and programs in Oregon are provided because they could be a source of assessment tools and management measures and practices. Oregon has two federally funded Hydrologic Unit Areas (HUA) that have been targeted as sites for federal, state and local efforts to reduce pollution from agricultural activities. In each of these areas, Washington and Malheur Counties, extensive efforts have been devoted to the demonstration of management practices that are consistent with Oregon agricultural production needs and with the local groundwater protection concerns. In each of these areas, research and demonstration efforts related to nutrient management have led to more effective nutrient utilization with less nitrate being lost to the underlying aquifers. Similarly these HUAs have provided an opportunity to demonstrate the benefits of more prudent irrigation management as a way to reduce water consumption as well as nutrient leaching beyond the root zone. Although the results of these demonstrations are widely shared and will probably be known by the people selected to be Ag Group members, more direct interaction may prove helpful. One way to approach these organizations as resources is through the County Extension Offices. Both Washington and Malheur County Extension personnel are actively involved in the HUA programs and can provide access to the locally devised BMPs. Alternatively, the Natural Resource Conservation Service and the Farm Services Agency have offices in each of these counties and can be used as sources of information.

Research and demonstration efforts are underway throughout the state to support the adoption of BMPs that can be used without adverse impact on the rural landowner. Much of this research has been supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency through the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and conducted by researchers working at the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Stations. In addition to the locations near Corvallis, trials devoted to the demonstration of alternative BMPs for groundwater protection are being conducted at the stations near Aurora, Madras, Ontario, Hermiston and Medford. Station superintendents at each of these stations are available to discuss current research and provide access to what has been done in the past to establish alternative practices that are economically viable in Oregon. Recent work has indicated the opportunity to monitor the leaching of soluble pollutants below the root zone of crops. This is a much more immediate indicator of groundwater pollution than waiting for contaminants to be detected in local wells. These results confirm the need for both nutrient and water management for irrigated agriculture.

The Ag Group or Team can seek assistance from local agricultural product suppliers in developing BMPs or alternative practices which protect groundwater. The local fertilizer and pesticide providers, for example, could assist farmers in making best management choices with special consideration of the groundwater resources. In addition, the local Fire Marshal and/or your Regional DEQ office could be helpful in both inventorying and examining above ground and underground fuel storage tanks for possible safeguards against spills and leaks. Local petroleum product providers could also be helpful in assisting farmers in determining best management strategies for fuel storage and handling to protect groundwater. Local farmers cooperatives could be a valuable resource in helping farmers within the wellhead protection area meet the objectives stated earlier. Including local agricultural youth groups such as Future Farmers of America (FFA) and 4-H Clubs in this program, under the supervision of their teachers, could provide a tremendous opportunity to educate themselves and others about the values and methods of wellhead protection on agricultural lands. The creativity of other local Teams throughout Oregon will undoubtedly generate novel approaches not listed here.



Agricultural/Rural Resource List


The Oregon State University (OSU) Extension Service - Information on best management practices to avoid groundwater pollution is available in each of the Oregon Counties by contacting the local OSU Extension office. You may also contact Ron Miner at OSU in Corvallis who serves as the water quality contact at (541) 737-6295. His office also has a series of publications available.  For information on county offices, call (541) 737-2711.

The Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Stations - Agricultural research is carried out in different locations around Oregon, including development of BMPs.
Dean/Director

Agricultural Hall

Oregon State University

Corvallis, Oregon

Phone: (541) 737-4251

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, was SCS) - A good source of technical information on BMPs, especially as they have been applied in Oregon.
NRCS

101 SW Main St., Suite 1300

Portland, OR 97204

Phone: (503) 414-3249

The Farm Services Agency (FSA) - A federal agency which offers funding for various agricultural programs.
FSA

Tualatin, Oregon

Phone: (503) 692-6830

Soil and Water Conservation Districts (SWCD) - A good source of local conservation information. Offices in every county. Contact:


ODA

Salem, Oregon

Phone: (503) 986-4700

Home*A*Syst, Homestead Assessment System - "A Program to Help You Protect the Groundwater that Supplies Your Drinking Water" (Developed in Oregon for Oregon Farms and Homesteads. Many useful worksheets and fact sheets designed especially for reduction of point/farm sources of contamination to the landowner's own well.
Home*A*Syst Program

Bioresource Engineering

Gilmore Hall 116

Corvallis, OR 97331-3906

Phone: (541) 737-6294

Document EM 8546 for $12.00 per copy available from:

Publications Orders

Agricultural Communications

Oregon State University

Administrative Services A422

Corvallis, OR 97331-2119

Phone: (541) 737-2513

Oregon Water Quality Decision Aid - Developed in Oregon for Oregon farms. Provides technical information about pesticide use. Guides assessment and management of pesticide use with regards to pesticide leaching potential and soil vulnerability. Associated publications also available to aid in assessment and management plans: EM 8559, EM 8560 and EM 8561.
Publication Orders

Agricultural Communications

Oregon State University

Administrative Services A422

Corvallis, OR 97331-2119

Phone: (541) 737-2513

Water Quality Protection Guide - "Recommended Pollution Control Practices for Rural Homeowners and Small Farm Operators". Provides general BMPs for surface and groundwater protection. 1995.

A Guide to Pesticide - Related Licensing in Oregon August 1995.

Both available from:
Oregon

Department of Agriculture

Natural Resources Division

635 Capitol St., NE

Salem, OR 97310-0110

Phone: (503) 986-4700

Best Management Practices for Wheat-A Guide to Profitable and Environmentally Sound Production. Written by the Cooperative Extension System and The National Association of Wheat Growers Foundation. Many of the BMPs are applicable to non-wheat crops. An easy to follow presentation of how BMPs can benefit the farmer while protecting the groundwater. For information or to obtain copies contact:

(See also: The Oregon Wheat Growers League below.)
NAWG Foundation

415 2nd St., N.E., Suite 300

Washington,

D.C. 20002-4993

Phone: (202) 547-7800

50 Ways Farmers Can Protect Their Groundwater - A guide to general and specific BMPs with background information. Several interviews with farmers that have successfully applied BMPs to benefit their operations while protecting the groundwater. Developed by the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Illinois

Office of Agricultural

Communications and Education Information Services

69-DP Mumford Hall

1301 West Gregory Drive

Urbana, IL 61801

Transition Document, Standards and Procedures - Guide for farmers interested in organic farming to minimize threats to groundwater from agricultural practices. Available from:
Oregon Tilth

P.O. Box 218

Tualatin, OR 97062

Phone: (503) 692-4877

Fax: (503) 691-2514

National Pesticide Telecommunications Network - Currently housed at Oregon State University. Provides information on the toxicology, human health effects, and environmental fate of pesticides.

Phone: 1-800-858-7378

Monday through Friday

Pesticide Container Management Program - Sponsored by the Oregon Agricultural Chemicals & Fertilizers Association (OACFA). Collection sites throughout the state in spring and fall. Participants required to rinse containers and to put rinsate in their spray tank; containers recycled.

For information contact:
OACFA

1270 Chemeketa St., N.E.

Salem, OR 97301

Phone: (503) 370-7024

The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) - The ODA is interested in promoting the widespread use of management practices that protect groundwater quality. The ODA also works through the local Soil and Water Conservation Districts.
ODA, Natural Resources Division

635 Capitol Street, NE

Salem, OR 97310

Phone: (503) 986-4700

Future Farmers of America (FFA) - High School students studying agriculture. May be able to help the ag member(s) of the Team by educating themselves and others about BMPs for groundwater protection. Contact your local High School to see if they have this student group.

4H Clubs - Students involved in agricultural activities in their communities. May be able to help the ag member(s) of the Local WHP Team by educating themselves and others about BMPs for groundwater protection. Contact your local Extension Agent for information.

Oregon Wheat Growers League - Association of wheat farmers. May be able to help implement BMPs presented in "Best Management Practices for Wheat" guide.

OWGL

Rt. 34, Box 421

Pendleton, OR 97801

Phone: (541) 276-9278

Beneath the Bottom Line: Agricultural Approaches to Reduce Agrichemical Contamination of Groundwater - 1990. Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. OTA-F-418, pp. 337.


Residential/Municipal Management Options


Residential areas are not typically thought of as being potential sources of groundwater contamination. We have tended to look at commercial and industrial operations as the primary potential sources of contamination. As was iscussed in Step 4 (Section 3.4), it is now recognized that residential areas can be significant sources of groundwater pollutants.

Municipal sources are grouped with residential because many of these municipal sources can be found in the same areas as the residential land uses. (In developing your management approach, your Team can group land uses or potential sources according to any other criteria you choose.) Although the tools for managing many of the potential sources in the "Municipal" category will be the same as the "Commercial/Industrial" approach, your Team may choose a different approach in managing these since they are usually publicly-owned facilities. Please refer to the "Commercial/Industrial" tools to address sources such as treatment plants, motor pools, waste transfer stations, and water treatment plants. In this section, we will highlight other common moderate to higher-risk residential and municipal sources and recommend some management tools associated with each of them.

Led by the residential or municipal representative(s), your local Team can choose one or more of the following options for management of residential/municipal sources within your wellhead protection area:

Housing - especially high density areas with >1 house per .5 acre:

Household Hazardous Wastes: see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants)

1. Host or facilitate household hazardous waste collection events.

Call DEQ's Waste Management and Cleanup Division at 503-229-5913 for more information on collection events in your area or how to coordinate a collection event;

2. Increase awareness of safe disposal of household wastes by:

3. Increase awareness of less toxic alternatives that can be used in the home:

Lawn/Garden Care: see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Encourage best management practices (BMPs) such as:

Septic Systems - especially high density areas with >1 per acre; see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Encourage best management practices such as:

2. Develop long-term solutions to area-wide problems:

Urban Runoff/Storm Water - NOTE: not listed as a separate source during inventory; see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Encourage best management practices (BMPs) to improve the quality of storm water which infiltrates to groundwater:

2. Encourage best management practices for road and parking lot construction and maintenance:

Golf Courses and Parks - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Encourage best management practices for handling and applications of pesticides and fertilizers:

Landfills/Dumps - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Review status of all operating landfills within your wellhead protection area:

Maintenance/Fueling Areas - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants:

1. Work with officials from utility company, airport, and railroad facilities to ensure the best management practices are being utilized to prevent groundwater contamination.

Many of the best management practices highlighted in Table 3-5 (Section 3.5) under Storage Facilities, Spill Control, Materials & Waste Management, and Employee Training can apply to maintenance and fueling areas.


Residential/Municipal Resource List


Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Pollution Prevention Begins At Home, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, (brochure - not dated).

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Small Businesses and Hazardous Waste: What you should know - A Handbook for People Who Produce Small Amounts of Hazardous Waste (Conditionally Exempt Generators), Portland, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Reduction Assistance Program, September 1992.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Oregon Metropolitan Service District, and Washington State Department of Ecology, The Hazardless Home Handbook, Portland, OR, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, and Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), 1995 (call DEQ at 503-229-5913).

Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), Common Sense Gardening - A Guide to Alternatives to Pesticides, Portland, OR, City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services, and Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), (not dated).

Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), Dispose of Household Hazardous Waste Safely, Portland, OR, Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), 1994.

Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), Safer Substitutes for Household Hazardous Products, Portland, OR, Oregon Metropolitan Service District (METRO), 1990.

Oregon Water Resources Department, A Consumer's Guide to Water Well Construction, Maintenance, and Abandonment, Salem, OR, Oregon Water Resources Department 1994.

Ross and Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and GEI Consultants, Enhancing Technical Assistance and Pollution Prevention Initiatives at the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Seattle, WA, Ross and Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., April 1994.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Wellhead Protection: A Guide for Small Communities, Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Water, February 1993.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Wellhead Protection Implementation Training - Module 4: Developing Management Approaches, Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Water, September 1992.

Washington Toxics Coalition, Alternatives: A Washington Toxics Coalition Fact Sheet, "A Safer Home: Reducing Your Use of Hazardous Household Products", Portland, OR, Reprinted by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, 1991.


Contact Oregon DEQ with questions about any other potential sources. Wellhead protection staff can be reached at

1-800-452-4011 or

503-229-5413.


Miscellaneous Management Options


Several of the potential sources inventoried as "Miscellaneous" sources could present the most serious threats to your drinking water. In particular, if you've identified leaking or unregulated underground storage tanks, historic waste dumps, or any type of well(s), you will need to carefully look at these individual sites as they are considered very high risks. In this section, we will highlight some of the most common and identify basic tools to address them. In many cases, you will want to consider using resources available through Oregon DEQ to assess whether there is a significant threat from an individual site you have identified.

Your Team should review the individual sources identified in this category and consider using some of the following options to address them:

Underground Storage Tanks and Historic Gas Stations - see Table 3-2 (Section 3-4) for a list of the potential contaminants.

NOTE: Underground storage tanks can pose a significant threat to groundwater since they are generally located just above the water table in many areas of Oregon:

1. Verify status of all underground storage tanks identified in your inventory; contact DEQ's tank program with any questions on the status or permit conditions of individual tanks at (503) 229-5913.

Federal and state regulations require the licensing of underground storage tank service providers, permitting of tanks, notification of tank decommissioning, and prompt notification of spills and specific cleanup procedures. (See "UST Cleanup Manual" DEQ, 1995, for more information on rules and standards for cleanup.) All tanks and piping must have leak detection. Existing USTs must be protected from spills, overfills, and corrosion by December, 1998. (For more information, see "Don't Wait Until 1998 - Spill, Overfill, and Corrosion Protection for Underground Storage Tanks" EPA, 1994.)

2. Contact DEQ's Site Assessment program at (503) 229-5913 for more information on any historic gas stations you identified during the inventory.

Construction/Demolition Areas - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants.

1. Obtain copies of "Environmental Handbook for Oregon Construction Contractors" (DEQ, 1994):

Wells - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants.

Background Information:

Improperly constructed water supply wells or monitoring wells may either contaminate an aquifer or produce contaminated water. Dug wells, generally of large diameter, shallow depth, and poorly protected, commonly are contaminated by surface runoff flowing into the well. Driven wells (as opposed to drilled wells) do not have a casing seal and may allow shallow contaminated water to enter the aquifer. Other contamination has been caused by infiltration of water through contaminated fill around a well or through the gravel pack. Still other contamination has been caused by septic tank, barnyard, feedlot, or cesspool effluent draining directly into the well. Many contamination and health problems can arise because of poor well construction.

Over time, well casings and seals may also begin to deteriorate in wells. Proper maintenance will help extend the life of your well, but eventually repairs may be needed. A landowner is responsible for the maintenance of wells on his or her property. If well construction problems are discovered that could contribute to the contamination or waste of the groundwater resource, the Oregon Water Resources Department (WRD) can require the landowner repair or eliminate the problem. WRD will look first to the well constructor if the standards were not adhered to, but if the constructor is unwilling or unable to perform the repairs, the landowner must assume the costs.

Unused wells that are not abandon-ed correctly can cause groundwater contamination, and under certain conditions, waste or loss of artesian pressure. Ultimately, landowners can be held responsible for harm to the groundwater resource of the public resulting from unused wells. Oregon well abandonment standards (OAR 690-220) are designed to protect the resource and the public and to ensure that unused wells are abandoned properly to prevent the problems listed above. The goal in permanently abandoning wells is to restore as closely as possible the geologic conditions which existed before the well was constructed and to prevent any future vertical movement of water in the drillhole.

There are two types of water well abandonment under Oregon rules - temporary and permanent abandonment. A well is considered temporarily abandoned when it is taken out of service due to a recess in use. A temporarily abandoned well must be covered by a watertight cap or seal. This prevents water or any other materials from entering the well from the surface. A well is considered permanently abandoned when it is completely filled so that movement of water within the well is permanently stopped. The Oregon Water Resources Department requires different abandonment techniques depending upon the type of well construction that was used and the local geology.

1. Encourage the proper abandonment of any unused wells in your wellhead protection area:

2. Encourage special precautions be taken in any storage areas, sheds, and the immediate vicinity of any well to prevent contaminants from entering the well.

The Oregon Water Resources Department can provide additional technical resources and information on protecting your wells.

Injection Wells / Drywells /Sumps - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants.

Background Information:

Basically, injection wells are man-made or improved "holes" in the ground, which are deeper than their widest surface dimension and are used to discharge or dispose of fluids underground. When properly sited, constructed, and operated, injections wells can be an effective and environmentally safe means of fluid waste disposal. There are many different types of injection wells, but they are similar in their basic function. Many shallow injection practices occur in Oregon, with differing permit requirements. Those underground injection activities which do not require a permit but are regulated by rule are: (1) storm water runoff; (2) the injection of small quantities of geothermal fluid re-injected into the same aquifer which produced it or into an aquifer of equivalent quality; and (3) cesspools, septic tank/drainfield and seepage pits for domestic sewerage systems with flows of less than 5,000 gallons per day.

1. Verify the permit status of any injection wells in your wellhead protection area by contacting the Oregon DEQ's Water Quality staff at (503) 229-5279.

2. Encourage elimination of the use of any dry wells or sumps in your wellhead protection area.

Transportation Corridors - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants).

1. Ensure that state and local transportation officials know where the wellhead protection area underlies major roadways so precautions can be taken to minimize the applications of herbicides on right-of-ways that may contaminate groundwater. (This includes contacting the local Weed Control District.)

2. Review spill response procedures for any hazardous materials that could be spilled on roadways:

Military Installations - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants)

1. Contact the state or federal environmental coordinator for any military facilities located within the wellhead protection area and ensure that they are aware of the need for groundwater protection.

2. Obtain a copy of any environmental assessments or reports of cleanup activities to be informed of the potential sources on the military base.

Managed Forests - see Table 3-2 (Section 3.4) for a list of the potential contaminants.

Background Information:

Local governments can impact federal timber harvesting operations including logging methods and erosion control on U.S. Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management lands through local water quality requirements as provided for in Section 313 of PL 92-500. To affect state and private timber operations, local jurisdictions will have to negotiate with the Oregon Department of Forestry regarding forest practices and with the Oregon DEQ regarding the application of water quality standards and possible Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements placed on state and private forestry operations.

1. Review forest practices by federal, state, or private operators within the managed forests in your area:

2. Encourage the application of non-point source control measures in forestry operations:

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